Continental Trade Sp. z o. o.

Technical glass

Glass-ceramic

Glass ceramics are obtained by controlled crystallization, usually caused by additives that become crystal seeds. This process, depending upon the additives can produce a range of materials with interesting (and sometimes surprising) properties. For example, you can get a glass ceramic with high resistance to thermal shock and completely transparent to applications, eg. as cooking utensils. Another combination of ingredients allows you to get material biochemically inactive, transparent, relatively soft for dental applications.

Glass ceramics are typically prepared in two steps. In the first step, glass is prepared in a standard thermal process. In the second step, the glass is cooled and re-heated above the glass transition temperature. This step is sometimes repeated (creating a third step). During these thermal processes, glass partially crystallizing in the interior. In most cases, to the base composition are added nucleating agents (eg. precious metals, fluorides, ZrO2, TiO2, P2O5, Cr2O3, or Fe2O3) to stimulate the crystallization process.

Less commonly used method is to provoke and controlling internal crystallization during the cooling phase of the molten liquid of high viscosity. This process is sometimes used to produce relatively coarse glass-ceramic used in the construction industry.

In contrast to classical and sintered  ceramics and is by nature free of porosity. Another useful feature is the high resistance to thermal shock and high temperature of operation. Glass ceramic has virtually zero coefficient of thermal expansion. Well transmits visible and infrared radiation.

Because of these properties, ceramic glass are used as heating plates, fireplace glass , radiator covers, etc.

Schott ROBAX®

Transparent glass-ceramic Schott ROBAX®

This glass is extremely heat resistant. The combination of good transmittance visible and infrared radiation (which we feel as heat) with a low coefficient of thermal expansion of glass make ROBAX excellent material for the manufacture of glass heating devices such as fireplaces or stoves.

Characteristics:

  • high temperature resistance (up to 700 °C)
  • good transmittance of visible and infrared light
  • blocking ultraviolet radiation
  • excellent thermal shock resistance

Applications:

  • windows in fireplaces and stoves
  • protective panels in heat radiators
  • UV protection
  • enclosures for high-power light sources
  • enclosures for infrared drying devices
Some propertiesTransmittance of ROBAX glass
Density 2,58 g/cm3 Full range
Modulus of elasticity (Young’s) 92 GPa
Poisson’s ratio 0,25
Coefficient of thermal expansion 0,0 ±0,5 10-6 /K
Max. working temperature:
- up to 5 hours 760 °C UV range
- up to 10 hours 710 °C
- up to 100 hours 660 °C
- up to 1000 hours 610 °C
- up to 5000 hours 560 °C
Schott ZERODUR®

Transparent glass-ceramic Schott ZERODUR®

Zerodur® is non-porous material, very homogeneous, created in the controlled volume crystallization of the silica with the addition of lithium and aluminum. It is a glass with an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion, which becomes zero or even negative in certain temperature ranges (see chart below). Another unique feature of this material is its unique uniformity (homogeneity). Even in large blocks Zerodur does not indicate disorders of mechanical, thermal or optical properties. High transmittance of radiation in the range of 400 nm to 2300 nm (see chart below) allows easy verification of the inner homogeneity.

Characteristics:

  • extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion 
  • very high homogeneity of the material (thermal, mechanical and optical)
  • high permissible operating temperature
  • smooth surface (roughness < 1nm)
  • excellent chemical resistance

Applications:

  • precision optics
  • precision measuring equipment
  • mirror substrate at large astronomical telescopes
  • substrate for X-rays telescopes
  • all applications where you need to minimize changes in shape with temperature changes.

Coefficient of thermal expansion

Thermal expansion of  ZERODUR 

 

Some propertiesTransmittance of ZERODUR glass
Density 2,53 g/cm3 Transmittance of ZERODUR glass
Modulus of elasticity (Young’s) 90,3 GPa
Poisson’s ratio 0,24
Coefficient of thermal expansion 0,0 ±0,1 10-6 /K
Thermal conductivity 1,46 W/(m K)
Max. working temperature: 600 °C

Hydrolytic resistance

   Acc.  ISO 719 (@ 98 °C): class HGB 1 

Alkali resistance

   Acc. ISO 10 629: class 1

Acid resistance
   Acc. ISO 8424: class 1

Dielectric properties

@ 25° C i 1 MHz: 
   Dielectric constant εr=7,4 

PYROCERAM® glass

PYROCERAM® glass-ceramic

Is created by adding to the aluminosilcate glass crystallizing additives in the form of titanium oxide. The material suitable for machining and smoothing the surface by etching. Transmits visible radiation giving him a pale amber color. Has a low coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal shock resistance and high working temperature.

Applications:

  • windows for fireplaces and stoves,
  • glass in the microwave,
  • in architecture and lighting,
  • blocking ultraviolet radiation,
  • heat resistant cookware in the household.

 

Some propertiesTransmittance of PYROCERAM glass
Density 2,55 g/cm3 Transmittance of PYROCERAM
Young's modulus 94,3 GPa
Poisson ratio 0,25
Thermal expansion coefficient 0,0 ±0,3 10-7 /°C
Thermal shock 700°C
Max. working temperature:
- long term 700 °C
- temporary 800 °C

Chemical properties

Hydrolytic resistance
   Acc.  ISO 719 (@ 98 °C): class HGB 1 

Alkali resistance
   Acc. ISO 695: class 1

Acid resistance
   Acc. DIN 12 116: class 1

Dielectric properties

@ 25° C i 1 MHz: 
   Dielectric constant εr=8,1 

Dimensions

  • maximum sheet size: 2 005 mm x 1 100 mm
  • glass thickness: 3 mm, 4 mm or 5 mm (± 0,2 mm)

 

While every attempt has been made to verify the source of the information, no responsibility is accepted for accuracy of data.

Information clause

What personal data are processed and who is their administrator?

When using our services, personal data that we process may be, for example, the IP address of your device, data obtained from cookies or similar mechanisms for recording information in Users' devices, as long as they allow you to identify you. More information about the scope of personal data and cookies can be found in the Cookies policy and in Privacy policy.

Administrator, ie the entity deciding on which personal data will be processed and for what purpose, and in what way, is Continental Trade Sp. z o.o. (hereinafter "Continental Trade" or "We") with its registered office and address in Warsaw at Krasnobrodzka Street 5.

What is the purpose and basis of the processing of your personal data by Continental Trade ?

Continental Trade processes your personal data to enable you to use our services, match the displayed content and ads to your interests, measure quality and effectiveness, improve content and services.

The basis for the processing of personal data is the legitimate interest of Continental Trade. It includes improving services, ensuring their best quality and informing Users about them.

Confirming that you have read this information,   by clicking on "Go to website" or closing this window at the same time you agree that your personal data will be processed in the same way as described here. You can manage your consent, including withdrawal.

Providing personal information is voluntary.

What are your rights to   Continental Trade in terms of processed data?

You can request from Continental Trade: access to data, rectification, deletion, transfer and, in some cases, processing restrictions, and you have the right to object to the processing of your personal data when personal data are processed on the basis of the legitimate interest of the administrator. You have the right to file a complaint regarding the processing of your personal data to the President of the Office of Personal Data Protection.

To whom does Continental Trade share your personal data?

Continental Trade, in principle, does not share your personal data with third parties, except for situations in which Continental Trade has a legal basis, including at the request of authorized entities, or when it is necessary to perform services offered by Continental Trade, e.g. entrepreneurs providing hosting of our services.

How long does Continental Trade store your personal data?

Continental Trade stores Users' personal data only for the time that is necessary to achieve the purposes for which the data was collected and provided that one of the legal grounds described above is up-to-date or when a new ground has appeared, e.g. a law or the need to enforce claims in court proceedings.

Who can you contact for more information on the processing of personal data by Continental Trade?

If you have questions related to the processing of your personal data on websites operated by Continental Trade or would like to report the issue related to the processing of personal data by Continental Trade, you can contact a Continental Trade representative using the contact information: office@continentaltrade.com.pl.

More information on the protection of your personal data can be found in the Cookie Policy and Security Policy documents published on our website www.continentaltrade.com.pl