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Technical glass

Borosilicate glass

Borosilicate glass properties

Borosilicate glass has been widely used due to the high chemical resistance and high resistance to temperature changes (thermal shock resistant). The level of boron oxide in the batch (the mixture of all raw materials, which are used to prepared glass) has a lasting effect on both the behavior of the melting glass, and on all other of its properties (including resistance to chemicals). Due to the possibility of differentiating the chemical composition (including the addition of metal oxides), the borosilicate glass form an extensive range of materials. We offer the following types of borosilicate glass: 3.3 borosilicate glass, borosilicate glass 4.3, Suprax 8488 and Pyrex, Boronorm, which selected properties are described below.

The typical hardness of borosilicate glass is 5.5 Mohs, Knopp 470, Vickers 580.

We offer the following types of borosilicate glass: 3.3 borosilicate glass, borosilicate glass 4.3, Suprax 8488 and Pyrex, Boronorm, which selected properties are described below.

Borosilicate glass 3.3 - DIN 7080

This type of glass is resistant to aggressive chemicals, has a high percentage of silica and large boron oxide dopant. It can be milled, drilled, grounded and toughened. Its low coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal shock resistance and ability to work at temperatures up to 450 ° C for a long period of time, make this type of glass particularly suitable for use in stable temperature conditions. Is suitable for operation at low temperatures. Can withstand the temperature to about -196 °C (is suitable for use in contact with liquid nitrogen). During thawing ensure that the temperature difference does not exceed 100 K. In general is recommended  for use down to -70 °C. 

This glass is extremely resistant to water, alkalis, acids and organic substances. 

Composition

SiO2  80 %
B2O3  13 %
Na2 4 %
Al2O3  2 %
K2 1 %

 

Standard thicknesses and tolerances

Thickness Tolerance Thickness Tolerance
0,70 mm ±0,1 7,5 mm ±0,3
1,10 mm ±0,1 8,0 mm ±0,3
1,75 mm ±0,2 9,0 mm ±0,3
2,00 mm ±0,2 13,0 mm ±0,5
2,25 mm ±0,2 15,0 mm ±0,5
2,75 mm ±0,2 16,0 mm ±0,5
3,30 mm ±0,2 17,0 mm ±0,5
5,00 mm ±0,2 18,0 mm ±0,5
5,50 mm ±0,2 19,0 mm ±0,5
6,50 mm ±0,2 21,0 mm ±0,7

Properties:

Density (@ 20 °C) 2 230 kg/m3
Bending strength 160 N/mm2
Surface compressive stress 100 N/mm2
Young’s modulus  64 GPa
Poisson’s ratio 0,2
Thermal conductivity 1,2 W/(m K)
Specific Heat 0,83 kJ/(kg K)
Coefficient of linear expansion 3,3 ±0,1 * 10 -6 °C
Index of refraction (@ 380 - 780 nm) 1,48 
Softening point 815 °C
Annealing Point 560 °C
Max. working temperature:
 - long term 450 °C
 - temporary(< 10h) 500 °C

Chemical properties:

Hydrolytic Resistance
   Acc.  ISO 719 (w 98 °C): class HGB 1 
   Acc.  ISO 720 (w 121 °C): class HGA 1 

Alkali resistance
   Acc. DIN 52 322 (ISO 695): class A2

Acid resistance
   Acc. DIN 12 116: class 1

Electrical properties

Volume resistance 
   at 25°C = 6.6 x 1013 Ω cm 
   at 300°C = 1.4 x 106 Ω cm

Dielectric properties

At 25° C and 1 MHz: 
   Dielectric constant εr=4,6 
   Dielectric loss factor tgδ =1,4x10-2

Optical properties

Index of Refraction Spectral Transmission
   λ = 587,6 nm nD = 1,4724 
   λ = 480,0 nm nF = 1,4782 
   λ = 546,0 nm nE = 1,4740 
   λ = 644,0 nm nC = 1,4701 
Spectral Transmission

 

BOROFLOAT® 3.3

BOROFLOAT® 3.3 is a versatile borosilicate glass with excellent light transmission, thermal properties, and chemical resistance. Its unique properties make it desirable in many different applications, from high temperature lighting windows, view ports in extreme conditions, to the medical and semiconductor industry. BOROFLOAT® 3.3 wafers are an excellent substrate for MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems), as its coefficient of thermal expansion is very similar to silicon and allows for anodic bonding between the two. The low density of BOROFLOAT® 3.3 also makes it an excellent choice for lighter weight laminated glass systems (bulletproof glass).

BOROFLOAT glass is often used as a less expensive equivalent to Pyrex glass for many applications. The materials differ in their chemical composition in the alkali ratio of Na2O / K2O and in their content of oxidic minor components which affects the transmission of the material.

Consisting of natural raw materials, BOROFLOAT® 3.3 is harmless to both humans and to the environment, and is also recyclable.

Is suitable for operation at low temperatures. Can withstand the temperature to about -196 °C (is suitable for use in contact with liquid nitrogen). During thawing ensure that the temperature difference does not exceed 100 K. In general is recommended  for use down to -70 °C. 

Composition

SiO2  81% Composition of BOROFLOAT
B2O3  13 %
Na2O/K2O 4 %
Al2O3  2 %

Properties:

Density (@ 18 °C) 2 230 kg/m3
Modulus of elasticity (Young’s) 64 GPa
Poisson’s ratio 0,2
Coefficient of linear expansion 3,25 * 10 -6 °C
Thermal conductivity 1,12 W/(m K)
Softening point  820 °C
Thermal shock Δ (@ 5-5.5 mm) 160 °C
Index of refraction (@ 380 - 780 nm) 1,474 
Working temperature (maximum):
 - long term (> 10 h) 450 °C 
 - temporary (< 10 h) 500 °C

Chemical resistance

BOROFLOAT® flat glass is highly resistant to water; neutral, acidic and saline solutions; as well as to chlorine, bromine, iodine and organic substances. Even over long periods of time and at high temperatures that exceed 100°C,

BOROFLOAT® exceeds the chemical resistance of most metals and other materials.

Hydrolytic resistance

   Acc.   ISO 719 (@ 98 °C): class HGB 1 
   Acc.   ISO 720 (@ 121 °C): class HGA 1 

Alkali resistance
   Acc. ISO 695: class A2

Acid resistance
   Acc. ISO 1776: class 1

Dielectric properties

@ 25° C and 1 MHz: 
   Dielectric constant εr=4,6 

   

Optical properties

Spectral transmission
Spectral transmission BOROFLOAT

Panel Thickness

BOROFLOAT® 33 is offered in the following thicknesses and tolerances:

Thickness Tolerance Thickness Tolerance
0,70 ± 0.07 8,00 ± 0.3
1,10 ± 0.1 9,00 ± 0.3
1,75 ± 0.1 11,00 ± 0.3
2,00 ± 0.2 13,00 ± 0.5
2,25 ± 0.2 15,00 ± 0.5
2,75 ± 0.2 16,00 ± 0.5
3,30 ± 0.2 18,00 ± 0.5
3,80 ± 0.2 19,00 ± 0.5
5,00 ± 0.2 20,00 ± 0.7
5,50 ± 0.2 21,00 ± 0.7
6,50 ± 0.2 25,40 ± 1.0
7,50 ± 0.3    

Panel thickness is continuously measured during production using laser thickness measuring equipment. Other nominal thicknesses and tolerances are supplied on request.

Sizes:

Standard sizes [mm] Thickness [mm]
1150 x 850 0,7 – 25,4
1700 x 1300 16,0 – 21,0
2300 x 1700 3,3 – 15,0

 

Min. size for stock sizes  700 mm x 575 mm
Max. size for stock sizes 3000 mm x 2300 mm
for 5,5 mm to 9 mm  thickness

 

BOROFLOAT® 3.3 product range is complemented by a wide variety of processing and finishing possibilities.
Processing:

  • Cutting (including water jet and laser)
  • Edge finish (trimmed, beveled, sanded or polished edges) and corner finish (dubbed or rounded corners)
  • Drilling (including ultrasonic)

Finishing:

  • Coating
  • Thermal semi-toughening
  • Printing, sandblasting/matte finishing
  • Surface polishing
  • Bending
  • Subsurface laser engraving
DURAN® - DIN 7080, ISO 3585

It is a glass highly resistant to water, neutral and acidic environment, solutions and concentrated acid and alkalies, chlorine, bromine, iodine and organic substances. The chemical resistance of the glass Duran® resistance is higher than most metals, even during a prolonged period and at higher temperatures (> 100 ° C). Only hydrofluoric acid, concentrated phosphoric acid, and strong alkaline materials may cause   decrease the surface of glass (glass corrosion) of temperature above 100 ° C.

Maximum working temperature of glass DURAN® is 500 °C. At temperatures above 525 ° C, glass begins to soften, and a temperature above 860 ° C liquefies. May be cooled to a very low freezing temperatures and is therefore suitable for use in contact with liquid nitrogen (about -196 ° C). In general DURAN® products are recommended for use down to - 70 °C, while defrosting must be ensured that the temperature difference does not exceed 100 K.

DURAN® glassware is suitable for use in microwaves.

DURAN® glass is highly resistant to changes of temperature  (ΔT = 100 K). Thanks to the very low coefficient of linear expansion (3.3 x 10-6 1/K) in the articles of this material in practice there are no stresses during rapid temperature changes (e.g. not crack the vessel when filled with boiling water).

DURAN ® is a commercial version 3.3 borosilicate glass, hence the majority of the properties and composition is similar to the type of glass.

Composition

SiO2  81% Composition of DURAN
B2O3  13 %
Na2O + K2O 4 %
Al2O3  2%

 

Properties:

Density (@ 25 °C) 2.23 g/cm3
Modulus of elasticity (Young’s) 63 * 103 N/mm2
Poisson’s ratio 0.2
Coefficient of linear expansion 3.3 * 10 -6 °C
Thermal conductivity 1.2 W/(m K)
Transformation temperature T(ISO 7884-8) 525 °C
Glass temperature for density dPa s 1013     560 °C  (annealing point)
10 7.6    825 °C  (softening poin)
10 4    1250 °C  (working point)
Thermal shock Δ 100 °C
Index of refraction (@ 380 - 780 nm) 1.474 
Working temperature (maximum):
 - long term 300 °C 
 - temporary (< 10 minutes) 500 °C

Log of the electric volume resistivity:    
- at 250°C
- at 350°C

 
8.0
6.5

Chemical resistance

Due to the high content of silica (SiO2), DURAN glass is very resistant to water, acids, organic solvents and halogens. Only hydrofluoric acid, hot concentrated phosphoric acid and strong alkaline solutions cause significant corrosion of the glass. 

Hydrolytic resistance

   Acc.   ISO 719 (@ 98 °C): class HGB 1 
   Acc.   ISO 720 (@ 121 °C): class HGA 1 

Alkali resistance
   Acc. DIN 52 322 (acc.  ISO 695): class A2

Acid resistance
   Acc. DIN 12 116 (ISO 1776): class 1

Dielectric properties

@ 25° C and 1 MHz: 
    Dielectric constant εr=4.6 
    Dielectric loss factor    tan δ= 37*10-4

   

Optical properties

Spectral Transmission
Spectral Transmission DURAN

DURAN® glass is generally available in the form of tubes, rods, capillaries or laboratory glassware and apparatus. 

PYREX® - DIN 7080

It is a glass having excellent thermal properties. Low coefficient of thermal expansion and thermal shock resistance qualifies it for high temperature applications. Pyrex® is also suitable for operation at low temperatures. It can withstand the temperature to about -196 °C and is suitable for use in contact with liquid nitrogen. In normal use the laboratory, for a long time can operate at temperatures up to -70 °C.

The thermal expansion coefficient almost identical to quartz causes Pyrex® may be glued to the quartz glass. Good resistance to acids and also transmission in a wide wavelength range causes the Pyrex® is a versatile material for various optical applications.

It can be sanded, polished and painted by specific customer requirements.

Composition

SiO2  80,6% Composition of PYREX
B2O3  13 %
Na2 4 %
Al2O3  2,3 %
others  0,1 %

 

Properties:

Density (@ 18 °C) 2 230 kg/m3
Modulus of elasticity (Young’s) 64 GPa
Poisson’s ratio 0,2
Coefficient of linear expansion 3,25 * 10 -6 °C
Thermal conductivity 1,14 W/(m K)
Softening point 821 °C
Thermal shock Δ 160 °C
Index of refraction (@ 380 - 780 nm) 1,474 
Working temperature (maximum):
 - long term 230 °C 
 - temporary (< 10 minutes) 490 °C

Chemical resistance

Very resistant of water, acids, organic solvents and halogens. Only hydrofluoric acid, hot concentrated phosphoric acid and strong alkaline solutions cause significant corrosion of the glass. 

For many applications, it is important to glass had excellent resistance to hydrolysis. For example, during steam sterilization high-temperature water can cause leaching of alkali metal ions (Na +). Borosilicate glass Pyrex® has a relatively low content of alkali metal oxides, and consequently high resistance to attack by water.

Glass with a high content of silica (SiO2) is more resistant to acid. Pyrex® contains more than 80% silica and is therefore extremely resistant to acids (excluding of hot, concentrated phosphoric acid, and hydrofluoric acid).

Hydrolytic Resistance

   Acc.   ISO 719 (@ 98 °C): class HGB 1 
   Acc.   ISO 720 (@ 121 °C): class HGA 1 

Alkali resistance
   Acc. DIN 52 322 (acc.  ISO 695): class A2

Acid resistance
   Acc. DIN 12 116 (ISO 1776): class 1

Dielectric properties

@ 25° C and 1 MHz: 
   Dielectric constant εr=4,6 

   

Optical properties

Spectral Transmission
Spectral Transmission PYREX

PYREX® glass is generally available in the form of laboratory glassware and apparatus.

BORONORM

BORONORM glass has one of the lowest coefficients of thermal expansion, which makes it resistant to thermal shocks. A low content of iron oxide allows an increased transmittance ultraviolet light. Glass density is one of the lowest among this type of glass. This glass is extremely resistant to scratches. Moreover, it has high thermal resistance up to 450 °C. Is suitable for operation at low temperatures. Can withstand the temperature to about -196 °C (is suitable for use in contact with liquid nitrogen). During thawing ensure that the temperature difference does not exceed 100 K. In general is recommended  for use down to -70 °C. 

Due to its physical and chemical parameters BORONORM glass is used in many areas of industry (food, chemical, electrical, shipbuilding, etc.).

 

Composition

SiO2  80 % Composition of BORONORM
B2O3  14 %
Na2 4 %
Al2O3  2 %

 

Properties:

Density (at 18 °C) 2 230 ±20 kg/m3
Modulus of elasticity (Young’s) 64 GPa
Poisson’s ratio 0,2
Coefficient of linear expansion (@20°C - 300°C ISO 7991) 3,3 ±0,1 * 10 -6 °C
Visible transmission  up to 91,5 %
Thermal shock Δ 175 °C
Index of refraction (@ 380 - 780 nm) 1,473 
Working temperature (maximum) 450 °C 

Chemical resistance

Very resistant of water, acids, organic solvents and halogens. Only hydrofluoric acid, hot concentrated phosphoric acid and strong alkaline solutions cause significant corrosion of the glass. 

Hydrolytic Resistance

   Acc.   ISO 719 (@  98 °C): class HGB 1 
   Acc.   ISO 720 (@ 121 °C): class HGA 1

Alkali resistance
   Acc. ISO 695: class A2

Acid resistance
   Acc. ISO 1776: class 1

Borosilicate glass 4.3

To work in an environment of steam and hydrostatic applications we offer borosilicate glass 4.3. Resistance to chemicals and thermal expansion permit the use of a high level of hardening, so that the glass are characterized by high resistance to thermal shock. Is suitable for operation at low temperatures. Can withstand the temperature to about -196 °C (is suitable for use in contact with liquid nitrogen). During thawing ensure that the temperature difference does not exceed 100 K. In general is recommended  for use down to -70 °C. 

Composition

SiO2  78 %
B2O3  10%
Na2 7 %
Al2O3  3%
ZrO2  2 %

Properties:

Density (@ 25  °C) 2 280 kg/m3
Flexural strength 25 MPa
Modulus of elasticity (Young’s) 67 GPa
Poisson’s ratio 0,20
Thermal conductivity (@ 90 °C) 1,2 W/(m K)
Specific heat 0,83 kJ/(kg K)
Coefficient of linear expansion  (@ 20 °C - 300 °C) 4,3  * 10 -6 °C
Index of Refraction (λ=587,6 nm) 1,484 
Softening point 810 °C
Annealing point 580 °C
Glass temperature for density dPas

1013,0    560 °C
10 7,6    800°C
10 4,0   1200°C

Working temperature:
 - maximum 500 °C
 - in a heavy duty conditions 280 °C

Chemical properties

Hydrolytic Resistance
   Acc.   ISO 719 (@ 98 °C): class HGB 1 
   Acc.   ISO 720 (@ 121 °C): class HGA 1 

Alkali resistance
   Acc. DIN 52 322 (acc. ISO 695): class A2

Acid resistance
   Acc. DIN 1776: class 1

Electrical properties

Volume resistance
   @ 25°C = 6.6 x 1013 Ω cm
   @ 300°C = 1.4 x 106 Ω cm

Dielectric properties

@ 25° C and 1 MHz: 
   Dielectric constant εr=4,6
   Dielectric loss factor tgδ =1,4x10-2

Optical properties

Index of Refraction Spectral Transmission
   λ = 587,6 nm nD = 1,4816 
   λ = 480,0 nm nF = 1,4869 
   λ = 546,0 nm nE = 1,4831 
   λ = 644,0 nm nC = 1,4802 
Spectral Transmission
 

 

SUPRAX 8488

Glass Suprax 8488 combines high temperature and chemical resistance, while providing a high resistance to sudden temperature changes (thermal shock). Is suitable for operation at low temperatures. Can withstand the temperature to about -196 °C (is suitable for use in contact with liquid nitrogen). During thawing ensure that the temperature difference does not exceed 100 K. In general is recommended  for use down to -70 °C. 

Composition

SiO2  76 %
B2O3  12 %
Na2 6 %
Al2O3  4 %
BaO  1%
ZrO2  1 %

Properties:

Density (@18 °C) 2 310 kg/m3
Flexural strength 25 MPa
Modulus of elasticity (Young’s) 67 GPa
Poisson’s ratio 0,2
Thermal conductivity 1,4 W/(m K)
Specific heat 0,83 kJ/(kg K)
Coefficient of linear expansion  4,3 * 10 -6 °C
Index of refraction (@ 380 - 780 nm) 1,48 
Annealing point 560 °C
Softening point 800 °C
Thermal shock Δ 130  °C 1)
Glass temperature for density dPas 1013.0    560°C
10 7,6    800°C
10 4,0  1200°C
Working temperature (maximum):
 - long term 400 °C 2)
 - temporary (< 10 minutes) 450 °C

1) for toughened glass thermal shock Δ is 265 °C
2) for toughened glass maximum temperature of long term work is 300 °C (can be untoughened)

Chemical properties

  Hydrolytic Resistance Acid resistance Alkali resistance
Norm no. DIN ISO 719: class HGB 1 DIN ISO 1776 DIN ISO 695: class A2
max. loss acc. norm 0,1 <100 μg Na2O/dm2 >75–175 mg/ dm2
max. loss for SUPRAX 0,050 <60 μg Na2O/dm2 >100 mg/dm2

 

Glass working in aggressive environments (acid / alkaline) is subject to the so-called erosion, ie. is dissolved by this environment. The erosion rate depends on the corrosive medium and the operating temperature. Over time, the thicknesses of glass decreases. The loss could be several millimeters per month! This process should take into account when calculating the thickness of the glass, especially if you work in an aggressive environment of high temperature,

Glass erosion shows the graph on the right.

Glass erosion

 

Food safety: meets the requirements according to German Standards "§ 31 Lebensmittel-, Bedarfsgegenstände- und Futtermittelgesetzbuch (LFGB lub LMBG)" and "Bedarfsgegenständeverordnung ".Pt 31, Article 1 LFGB

Electrical properties

Volume resistance 

   @ 25°C = 6.6 x 1013 Ω cm 
   @ 300°C = 1.4 x 106 Ω cm

Dielectric properties

@ 25° C and 1 MHz: 
   Dielectric constant εr=5,4 
   Dielectric loss factor tgδ =93

Optical properties

 

Index of Refraction Spectral Transmission
   λ = 587,6 nm nD = 1,4816 
   λ = 480,0 nm nF = 1,4869 
   λ = 546,0 nm nE = 1,4831 
   λ = 644,0 nm nC = 1,4802 
Spectral Transmission

While every attempt has been made to verify the source of the information, no responsibility is accepted for accuracy of data.

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